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Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 1 

Preliminary report on the findings 
of the Old Mountain-Complex and City 

of Atlantis 

"The walls of The City and the Qumran Scrolls" 

Eugenio Bagni Ralbadisole 

19 February 2019 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 2 
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, 
commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. 

Open access paper: please credit the author and the full source. 

Copyright. For commercial purposes rights are reserved. 


Preliminary report on the findings of the Mountain-Complex city of Atlantis 


In the Peninsula of Khatiawar in West India at the geographical location with the 

coordinates: 21° 31’ 40” 00 N 70° 31’ 40” 00 E, a mountain-complex presenting rare 
geological features has been identified. [Fig. 1], 

We believe that this mountain-complex, locally called Girnar or Girinagar Mountain 
shows all the historical and geomorphological characteristics of the civilization 
mentioned by the Greek philosopher Plato in 350 BCE, the so called: “Lost City of 

The discovery that this site is Atlantis is still theoretical, a work in progress; therefore 
we must find physical evidence of this ancestral civilization. However, the geological, 
zoological, botanical, geographical, climatological, sociological and historical evidence 
found in the region indicates that Girnar mountain-complex has all the characteristics of 

the lost civilization of Atlantis. 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 3 


Atlantis, Lost civilization, Egypt, Olmec, Maya, India, Sumerian, Rome, Greece, Vinca, 
Glozel, Harappa 


Available written evidence shows that an ancient site in India has been hidden for 
millennia, a site kn own as: The Lost City of Atlantis. 

According to this investigation, there has been a major erratum among cartographers 
resulting in the ancient history of India being hidden. This work, Fomenko (2003a), 
explains how major lapses have occurred in the drawing of old geographical maps. 

As mentioned, this preliminary report is based on strong foundations of historical, 
economic and incontrovertible geographical evidence pointing to the conclusion that we 
are witnessing the discovery of an advanced Palaeolithic civilization. The results of this 
decennial investigation show that Girnar Mountain is likely the only location with such 
a unique conjunction of factors anywhere on the planet, proving the existence of 
primordial kings buried in a forgotten land. 

Once these factors are taken together, the picture of our past can be read with scientific 
clarity. The objective location of Atlantis is a starting point to solve a very difficult 
rebus. Piece by piece, historians can eventually solve questions which have been 
waiting for an answer since ancient times. 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 4 

The western state of Gujarat in India is a known location of the Indus Valley 
Civilization, this historical area also includes North West India, Pakistan, and part of 
Afghanistan. The site of Merhgarh, in Pakistan, has seen complex settlements from the 
Eighth millennium BCE. Mcintosh (2007a p. 15). 

The geography and dense cultural environment of India has similarities with few other 
places around the world, and its emerging archaelogical sites suggest a specific 
preference for this country to be a candidate in the search for the forgotten original land. 
Known references to Atlantis are associated with Egypt and the Greece of Plato. 
Therefore, in the search for an antediluvian pre-classical society having frequent and 
regular contacts with the Greeks, it is imperative not to search for a site located in the 
Atlantic Ocean, or in the Caribbean Sea, where in fact there was an absence of any 
Greek presence. Artefacts or any other cultural vestiges that can point our attention to 
ancient Greece are absent beyond the Italian island of Sicily. 

Ancient Greece had many and continuous contacts with West India. Hellenic cities were 
built in accordance with the cardinal points as were those in the Indus Valley 
Civilization cities. Mcintosh (2007b p.34). The Greek philosophers might have spent 
long visits at the Alexandria Library, where old scripts of ancient knowledge were 
stored. The complete contents of this library are not known, but for some reason the 
Romans, the Christians and later the Muslims each had their own reasons for 

destroying them. These Greek philosophers use a scheme in their studies and analysis 
that does not have a clear origin. The Indian Puranas and Darsanas could have been a 
source of inspiration as these studies are much older then Greece. 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 5 
There are systematic similarities between the old Indian Harappan and the Greek 
language called “Linear A and B”, the Phoenician, the Etrurian, the Vinca, the Glozel, 
Runes and other characters used in the past. Rapson 1922 p.63-64-65). Did the Indian 
King Ashoka use Greek writing, or was it the Greeks who chose a sacred alphabet 
created in India? (Kandahar Greek Edicts of Ashoka) The Romans used Etrurian to 
produce written Latin, then this form of writing was exported throughout the Empire 
and it has become the most commonly used form of writing in today’s world. In the 
Etrurian artefacts we often see tropical elements of indian origin. 

In the vicinity of Rome there is a sacred lake called Nemi where Diana, the Goddess of 
the forest, lives, surrounded by a circular range of mountains. We suggest that the old 
classic civilisations had Atlantis as reference, many aspects of these societies were a 
copies of the ancient first civilization of Atlantis, so is possible that some names that 
were first used in India, later were also used in and around the Mediterranean as a sign 
of respect, these habits has often confused the East with the West in the tracking of the 
original culture. In India followers of the Jain religion worship a holy man called 
Neminatha who found his illumination on the top of Mount Gimar. The Emperor 
Caligula built two ships to celebrate religious events on Nemi Lake; this scenic re¬ 
enacting was a simulation of the older culture of Atlantis. The name Nemi may have 
been used in Atlantis, the reverse of Nemi is linen (Amen). The Goddess who created 
the Egyptian city of Sais was called Neith and in Sais the Egyptian priests kept the story 
of Atlantis written on a pillar. [YouTube Video File], "Atlantis and the Gods of 
Antiquity". The root of Nemi has been used to name the God of the Seas, Neptun, in 
Greece is Poseidon the creator of Atlantis, both Gods use the Trident, this icon is 
derived from the top of Mount Girnar. [Fig.23]. 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 6 
Romano (2006) refers to a book by D.J.O’Meara, Pythagoras Revived, in which it is 
said: “ conclusion, it is safe to say that for the Iamblichus on Mysteries, a Platonic, 
Egyptian, or Chaldean Theology could very suitably be read as a sequel on 
Pythagoreanism ”. This is to say that the known classical civilizations share similar cul¬ 
tural experiences, but we still have not grasped the root, the origin of this common 
knowledge. A civilization of the magnitude of Atlantis must have left behind traces of 
material, memories or writings even after 12.000 years. 

A word by word analysis of related books shows us that the Indian Sub-continent offers 
zoological, botanical, mineralogical, geographical and anthropological features in a 
distinguished catalogue which precisely mirrors the written records about Atlantis. 

The only probable candidate for an advanced culture like Atlantis is a region with 
extensive and deep artistic and religious strata, which India has. Ancient sites such as 
Uruk, Eridu, Troy, Gobekly Tepe, £atal Huyiik, Jericho, Tell Brak and Baalbek present 
features that are not complete enough to describe an ancestral city-state; these sites 
seem to be only part of something larger that had its root in another location. The 
Sumerians had a knowledge that cannot be clearly explained as the evolution of tribes¬ 
men gone from hunter-gatherers to an advanced civilization in a relative short time. 

A question arises about the reliability of the story reported by Plato, but with regard to 
the rigorous logic of the Greek philosophers, we have found little reason to believe it 
could be a case of forgery. The Critias and Timaeus, the Plato dialogues, are certainly a 
true account. Educated men of that time and origin would never have mentioned the 
Gods on association with any fake historical report. This frame provide us with a 
trustworthy record, often offering parallel historical references from other sources on 

other continents. 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 7 
Plato shows a clear feeling of pride in being the only one of his time to know the 
ancient history of humanity. He gives so many specific, indepth details carefully 
avoiding the excess of fantastic accounts. The written sources taken into consideration 
for this study were originally the two Plato dialogues of Critias and Timaeus; 
advancing further into the research, three more unexpected sources become available: 
the Talmud, the Qumran Scrolls and the Book of Mahabharata from the Indian Veda. 
These four available references have to be taken into objective consideration due to the 
undisputed authority of their origins. More specifically, there are clear similarities 
between the written evidence and the anthropological and geomorphological data 
displayed in the Indian state of Gujarat, the location of Mount Girnar. 

Ten thousand years have passed since Atlantis was lost. A new trial of research 
methodology has been attempted based on two initial hypotheses: first, the possibility of 
a major erratum in the transcription of oral traditions during the course of history; 
second, the possibility of a major scheme during history to conceal a state secret and 
hide the location of a special site. Such occurences were not uncommon. The 
Phoenicians used deception to conceal their trade routes Smith (2012 p.65), while the 
Arabs hid the origin of the spices acquired in Indonesia from the Europeans. 

In the Middle Ages cartographers used to compile maps in reverse with north in place 
of south and east in place of west. Fomenko (2003b). The hypothesis expounded in 
Fomenko’s textbook is that ships were coming from European ports and heading south, 
so the maps followed the direction of sailing. But there is also the possibility that this 
was an effective technique used to hide places, tricking the enemy into searching for a 
secret destination in exactly the opposite direction. We have to consider that in those 
times geographical knowledge was scarce even among sailors, and there were few of the 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 8 
references we use today to pinpoint latitude and longitude. In the search for Atlantis 
there is a logical destination known to the Greeks: Asia, the developed world of that 
time, the place so many from the Mediterranean were looking to as a source of 
knowledge and trade opportunities. 

In ancient times Gibraltar was not a place of any interest; it was, an almost deserted land 
occupied by early hunter-gatherers just moving outwards from the caves of the Pyrenees 
Mountains. Mediterranean cultures were at an early stage, and only sporadic settlements 
had a certain level of development. According to the findings of Prof. Flinder Petrie the 
first temple at Abydos in Egypt is 15,000 years old; Abydos is about on the same 
latitude as Girinagar; the use of boats made for sea travel found at Abydos in graves or 
in other rituals could be the connection to the esodus from India. 

Our consideration of the chronology of human development must consider the evidence 
in the Indian sacred books of Veda, where references to the position of the star 
Aldebaran (Rohini) dates the history of early Indian civilization to the Tenth 
Millennium BCE, a post-glacial era when the two polar icecaps melted, raising the 
level of the world sea by 120 metres. [ Video File YouTube ] "Indian Civilization, The 
Untold Story". 

Atlantis has been lost for centuries because of changes in ancient cartography creating 
an unsolvable riddle. The two classical civilisations of Ancient Rome and Athens were 
allied and in peace for most of the time, this strong and stable relation was also based on 
the common source of their culture: India. 

Since ancient time the Greeks were in an optimal geographical position to benefit from 
the influx of knowledge coming from India. The ocean in front of India was sacred, as it 
was the original place were the ancient religion was bom. 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 9 
There are reason to believe that because of the size and importance the Greeks called 
the Indian Ocean, Atlas, like the Titan holding the Earth on his shoulder; then, there is 
also reason to believe that the Greeks called the end of their domain in the Persian Gulf: 
"The Columns of Heracles". 

The suffix ga often used in geographical Indian names comes from the sacred serpent of 
Naga, and denote a place considered sacred and blessed (Holy), possibly related to the 
name of God himself in ancient Atlantis. Trying to emulate and invest their domain with 
sacred names, the Romans called the West Ocean, Gaditano Oceano, and they called the 
end of their domain, at Gibraltar, "The Column of Hercules", so the Greeks and the 
Romans created two simmetrical civilizations, possibly believing that the cardinal 
points were geographical copies of one another with Egypt in the middle. 

Even in recent history, during the geographical exploration in the 15 th Century, the 
European used to call India and Indonesia, The East Indies, and The Caribbean, The 
West Indies. So, why the Atlantic Ocean belonging to the Romans' domain is now called 
with a name that belong to the Greeks? Because the use of the name has been inverted 
from the East, and illecitly moved away from the Greeks domain and placed to the 
West. The entire geographical references of the Greeks and their historical and religious 
accounts have been diverted from the East, the obvious place of great interest, to the 
West, the land of the early barbarians, a land with little civilization in the eras before the 
present. The strait where Iran and Oman he today, was the gate to the unknown world 
of the East, a place where the ancient cultures developed first. For the ancient Greeks, 
the Columns of Heracles (Hercules for the Romans) were not in Gibraltar but at the end 
of the Persian Gulf, and beyond was the Indus Valley Civilization. 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 10 
We suggest that a convenient alteration conceived during the European Middle Ages, 
erased the Greeks domain of the East, possibly to divert attention from India and the 
Islamic world born in later times; for centuries Islam blocked both sea and land route to 
India. Hinduism before, and Islam later, were in conflict with the new Christian faith, in 
fact during the Middle Ages the Tribunal of Inquisition was actively judging pagans and 
heretics who worshipped ancient and distant religions. 

This erratum went so far that the German-Dutch cartographer, Gerardus Mercator 
(1512-1594), named the ocean passing Gibraltar the “Atlantic Ocean”. 

Is also possible that Mercator used a reversed Middle Ages map, confusing the historical 
reports and substituting what was on the East with Gibraltar. 

These ancient cartographers used to work on old maps, modifying the existing 
knowledge to a different version of geography. Mercator was a fervent servant of the 
State of the Church; certainly he had access to the archives in Rome, the old maps and 
old manuscripts. It is unlikely that Mercator would have made such a colossal mistake; 
he knew more about the ancient past of the world than anybody else. 

In 1594, at his death, his family published a new version of the Atlas. Because this was 
not done under Mercator’s supervision, someone may have changed something. 
Mercator was very close to the Franciscan friars in the monastery of Mechlen, in 
particular to Friar Monachus; he was jailed for this relationship, probably by the 
Protestant authority of the time. Mercator was particularly close to Monachus, an 
advisor on cartography with strong links to Rome, who had a decisive influence over 
Mercator’s research throughout his career. But this changes could be even older. There 
was a Byzantine cartographer born in Greece in the 6 th Century CE, Cosmas 
Indicopleustes is the one who spread the tale of the flat Earth; 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 11 
Cosmas might also be responsible for the deception in reversing the map of the world, 
apparently at the request of an unspecified high authority. In his book reprinted in 1897 
and 1909, Christian Topography, Cosmas say that Noah was living in the Garden of 
Eden and this was located to the East near the ocean that encircle the world. "But, to 
pursue our argument, we again assume that the four rivers which divine scripture says 
emanate from Paradise cleave a passage through the ocean and spring up in this earth. 
Of these, the Pheison is the river of India, which some call Indus or Ganges. It flows 
down from regions in the interior, and falls by many mouths into the Indian Sea". 
E.O.Winstedt (1909 p.28) also report of post-mortem changes done in Cosmas' book. 
Regarding Plato’s mention of a location called: Gadiria, like the Atlantic Ocean and the 
Columns of Hercules, this location has been moved to the West of the Mediterranean. 
We also read that Hercules opened a gulf through mountains to create a strait, but again 
we have no confirmation of whether this was to the west or to the east of the 
Mediterranean. All we know about the Columns of Heracles, that later became, the 
Columns of Hercules and the Atlantic Ocean is a long series of repetitions of an initial 
assumption based on historical erratum or changes made in cartography. Every scholar 
writing and creating references after Cosmas and Mercator assumed that the 
cartographers were right, so a long series of errors have occurred since the Atlas (Map 
of the World) was printed. 

The Spanish city near Gibraltar which is now called Cadiz was named Gadiria by 
Cosmas and Mercator; for the ancient Greeks (And Phoenician), Gadiria referred to a 
location in India. Changes and mistakes were certainly made during the transcription 
and translation of old books or while reporting oral history. 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 12 
In the Indian state of Gujarat there are many names of villages, towns and cities which 
include the syllabe ga : Merhgarh, Gandhinagar, Junagadh, Girinagar, Gagad, Bel agar, 
Dabugam, Dharamagarh, Titlagar, Kurtamagar, Bargarh, Lunkagar, Jagaladapur, 
Kutragada, Dongara, Jamnagar, Ganweriwala, Gad, and more. The Phoenician were 
using the suffix Gad in reverse as Dag, to name a God, "Dagon", while the Assyrian 
were using it for the God "Dagan", possibly another version of Naga; the inversion of 
words is a similar tecnique as the tilting of the characters, is an evidence that those 
ethnic groups knew each other very well. Old Persian Emperors were also known as 
Serpent Chief. Oldham (1905a p.45). In 1945, in the city of Nag Hammadi in Egypt, a 
boy discovered some Gnostic manuscripts in a local cave. 

The Indian Mahabharata mentions that it was beneficial for pilgrims to bathe in holy 
waters dedicated to the Serpent Naga, and these holy places were called : by their 
place name+Naga. Today, many of these names have been changed. According to 
Oldham (1905b pp.183-184), Naga or hooded serpents (cobras) are still sacred today in 
India and in other countries. Gandhara was an ancient Indo-Aryan kingdom situated 
along the Kabul and Swat rivers of Afghanistan and Pakistan. (Gandhara. In 
Wikypedia). In the first century CE, ships sailing through the Persian Gulf towards 
India, including regular Roman shipping fleets, were guided by stars and landmarks 
when these were visible. In those years an anonymous writer composed a Portolan, a 
marine guide-book for the journey: The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. In paragraph 
40 there is a description of the coast between the Indian gulfs of Kach and Khambhat: " 
As a sign of these places to those approaching from the sea there are serpents, very 
large and black; for at the other places on this coast and around Barygazal, they are 
smaller, and in color bright green, running into gold". 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 13 
Cobras and other snakes are common in Gujarat and throughout India; cobras, also 
called Nagas, are sacred animals. [Fig.2] In Hinduism, the Ghandarvas are male spirits 
who sing along with the female dancers, the Apsarasas, to entertain the Gods and 
humans; they are often seen together with a Cobra Naga, wich is considered a protector 
of kings and ordinary people. In Sanskrit, ga is the root used to form words describing 
people walking and motion in general. Hence, any name with the syllabe ga 
undoubtedly belongs to the culture of West India rather then Western Europe, a places 
where complex settlements began only with the Romans in the centuries before our 
present era. 

A headcover showing five, seven or nine cobras is still used today in India [Fig.2]. In 
Egypt the cobra was used to crown the head of Pharaohs. Today’s chronology of 
history presents a long void between the mention of a tree with a snake around it in the 
Old Testament and drawings of the Tree of Life in Sumerian tablets. Later on, the 
Christians assigned this particular iconography to the Garden of Eden, where the devil 
in the shape of a serpent corrupted the two first humans, Adam and Eve. 


1. The historical background of Atlantis 

In the ancient past the world had groups of humans at different stages of development, 
divided into a variety of ethnic groups. Living conditions and geography were also im¬ 
portant variables shaping cultures and societies. 

Human evolution is a subject related to the study of Art and Human Science, therefore 
the logic of the scientific method is applicable when we investigate scientific facts and 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 14 
artefacts discovered in old settlements. The obvious degradation of the original artefacts 
over time because of their fragility is a major concern when trying to prove and explain 
a particular event or scenario. Rather than artefacts, what we have left to investigate 
history is related to the imperfect world of ethnic, social and anthropological 
behaviours. Applying materialistic methods to investigate history is unlikely to shed 
light on the entire history of humanity on planet Earth. Moreover, we consider that poli¬ 
tical and religious litigation, as well as academic and sectarian conflicts, confuse the 
already nebulous panorama of human evolution. In such settings we must proceed 
cautiously towards assembling this complex mosaic to fill the space left void for too 
long. Several missing parts of history could be filled in by the discovery of Atlantis in 
the mountain-complex of Gimar, in the state of Gujarat in western India. [Fig. 1 ]. 

This memory of Atlantis is a point in human history when intelligence, sparked by 
divine revelation, created a geometric shape on Earth. The Ring of Atlantis is in front of 
our eyes, hidden in plain sight for millennia. This colossal circular model shows a 
galaxy that has fallen to Earth by divine intervention. Because of this model, men 
began to see the cryptic code of sacred geometry as an expression of the cosmic 
intelligence of the Great Spirit. We cannot split religion from science. The crossed 
circle, the whirling vortex, the Ring and the spoked wheel of Atlantis were a revelation. 
They suggested the existence of science a practice that makes every scientist wear the 
long robe of an elected priest of the sacred intelligence. Geological, zoological, 
botanical and sociological evidence found in this part of India shows that the written 
history in many old scripts confirms the existence of a prehistoric culture in West India. 
Wheeler (1953a p.93). In his work, Wheeler supports the hypothesis that the architecture 
of Harappa and other cities of the Indus Valley had an older ancestor, and the Harappans 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 15 

imposed on this past tradition a new approach as innovators. 

The lost civilization of Atlantis, as named by the Greek philosophers, is potentially the 
missing link between the hunter-gatherers and complex cultures such as Pre-dynastic 
Egypt. The sudden development of agriculture in Mesopotamia and structured cities in 
the Mediterranean, and the way in which other cultures which resemble these have 
been found as far away as Mexico and Pern can be explained as a missing piece 
perfectly fitting the empty center of the mosaic. Oursel (1934a p.19). 

Traces of tobacco and cocaine have been found inside Egyptian mummies when these 
products, were not known in the Old World. [Video File YouTube\ “Mystery Of The 
Cocaine Mummies. (Ancient Egypt Documentary) 

The background of this historical research begins with the classic writings of the Greek 
philosopher, Plato, the Jewish Talmud and Qumran Scrolls and the Indian Mahabarhata. 
There are signs throughout the Old World of a common knowledge, shared among dif¬ 
ferent cultures. Apparently, there were no links, but something is missing if we do not 
know what occurred earlier. If we consider Atlantis as a reference for the cultural and 
religious background, everything becomes clearer. People in the past were not so dif¬ 
ferent from us. They liked to share advanced thinking, new discoveries, and new habits, 
as people do today. In this period of history, men used to travel and report on different 
aspects of their lifestyle to people living in other locations. The Greeks, Romans, 
Sumerians and Egyptians, among others, had knowledge that does not have a clear 
origin, despite obvious similarities. The first two historical sources are Critias and 
Timeo: in 580 BCE a Greek legislator called Solon met a group of Egyptian priests in 
the city of Sais, near Alexandria. Here he learned of the existence of a civilization older 
than the Egyptians themselves. 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 16 
A third source is the writer Zvi Ben-Dor Benite’s 2009 book, The Ten Lost Tribes, a 
World History. Some of Benite’s citations come from the Talmud, where we find a 
description of a mysterious land as the possible original home of the Jews. The Ten 
Tribes, which are considered lost in history, represent, for Jewish culture, the origin of 
their ancestral fathers. The reason for taking this source as a true account is because 
there are striking similarities with discoveries made in the mountain-complex of Girnar 
and with its regional geographical and historical features; in other words, this source is 
unexpectedly one of the missing pieces of history that fits right into the mosaic of the 
recent Indian findings. 

2. The evolution of human settlement in West India 

Circa 74,000 years ago on the Indonesian island of Sumatra, the supervolcano Toba 
erupted, causing a massive blackout of the sky above the entire planet. For six years the 
Earth’s atmosphere was filled with ash and for another 1000 years the planet 
experienced continuous exceptionally wintry conditions. Neudorf (2011). 

Prehistoric men settled in North India on the high ground of the Bhimbetka Caves and 
along the Narmada River. Because the eruption of Toba shielded sunlight, temperatures 
dropped to freezing conditions; hunter-gatherers, unprepared for this sudden change, 
were certainly dying, even in tropical latitudes, both in the northern and southern 
hemispheres. Khan (2016). There is the possibility that men moving along the Narmada 
River reached the Indian Ocean where deep water was warming the coast, releasing heat 
stored in periods before the volcanic winter. Walking around the Kathiawar Island 
(Kathiawar was an island), the surviving tribes found a certain number of geothermal 

hot water sources. 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 17 
According to Plato, Atlantis had hot water from the ground, and in fact, the state of 
Gujarat is a volcanically active area where several geothermal hot water sources are still 

The volcanic winter, one thousand years long, forced people to move south to milder 
conditions. Tribes from Europe might have reached India according to the cyclical 
changes in astronomical and geographical conditions and carring with them the paternal 
chromosome Rlala. (Haplogroup Rla (Y-DNA). In Wikipedia). People as far as Finland 
might have periodically moved up and down to Asia through the land which is today 
Iran and Afghanistan where a viable land passage is present and where people on foot or 
with horses could easily walk to reach India. The survivors joined the local population 
of India to develop an advanced culture in this primitive time. 

During the Last Glacial Age, there was a glacier 200 kilometers long and 1000 metres 
high in the Himalayas. Eugester (2016a). The amount of water released toward West 
India was massive; the area which is today East Pakistan, the Punjab, Rajasthan and 
Gujarat was covered by rivers and swamps. The flow of water mixed with the original 
soil and with volcanic ash 15 centimeters thick. This mix provided an ideal combination 
of minerals for the growth of fruits and vegetables. Here, insects, animals and humans 
found an optimal land with mild temperatures and large supplies of cold and hot water. 
This combination of factors created a land that, in the memory of mankind, is 
remembered as The Garden of Eden. 

Deep investigation into the written historical evidence, natural history and available 
sociological data suggests that West India was the location of the epic garden found in 
many religious books where God create mankind. 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 18 

3. The Plato dialogues and Atlantis 
3.1 The memory 

In the year 347 BCE the Greek philosopher Plato reported a story about a mysterious 
city-state in the ancient past of human history. 

This account came from a Greek legislator, a wise man called Solon; in the year 580 
BCE Solon went to Egypt, and a group of priests welcomed him in the coastal city of 
Sais. The Egyptian priests briefed Solon on the old story of Atlantis, is an account that 
had passed through several generation of Greeks to arrive in the ears of Plato. 

The story says that 9000 years before their time there had been a large island where men 
developed an ideal civilization; however, all the names and the location of Atlantis had 
been changed into Egyptian and Greek according to the respective languages. 

In old written records about the city-state we read a multitude of names of people, 
Gods, locations, facts and events; at present, research into the original names has not 
been taken into consideration due to the immense complexity of the subject. 

The Egyptian priests told Solon that Atlantis fought against the Athenians. However, 
Athens was built much later than Atlantis, so there is a contradiction with the 
chronology, this is probably due to an oversimplification; the Egyptians were likely 
using the term “Athenians” to refer to all the tribal communities living in the Greek 
Peninsula at that time. “ There was a land where the fairest and noblest race of men 
which ever lived and that Athens were only seed of what was left”. (Critias, Plato). 
According to the priests’ account, these events occurred 9000 years before Solon 
visited. In total, the end of Atlantis can be calculated to 11,500 years ago circa; this date 
has found confirmation from the geological and climatological data related to the end of 
the last Ice Age. [Fig.3]. 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 19 
A large scale event could have broken the banks of several glacial lakes existing in the 
Himalayas, for example the Chandra Valley Glacier as seen in Eugster (2016b), and 
other lakes located at the base of the Himalaya range where melting ice created large 
basins of water over many centuries. In their study, (Allan & Delair 1995) explain that 
during the end of the Ice Age, 11,500 Years ago, the entire planet experienced a world 
wide cataclysm. This study presents evidence of large number of animals buried in piles 
at the bottom of caves. The variety of animals, both herbivore and carnivore, gathered 
together prove that the danger was so great that they overcome the fear of being hunted 
in order to survive a pending cataclysm. These animals died of drowning as result of 
swift water current running along the caves. We come to the conclusion that animals 
were able to find protection in caves before the rise of the Sun, and the danger was a 
gradual rise in temperature. 

The increase in temperature due to the cyclical changes in the Sun activity produced a 
rise well over 40° Celsius and melting the world glaciers literally burning the organic 
life for an unspecified period of time. Atlantis but also other cultures might have seen 
the end of their civilizations due to the anomaly in the Sun cyclical activity. 

The findings of (Allan & Delair 1995) also explain how Noah had the time to built the 
Ark around the City of Atlantis (Old Jerusalem), because the sudden rise of the 
temperature he was aware about the melting glaciers and the incoming flood. 

Still in present time, melting Himalayan lakes are cause of great concern for the security 
of villages and farms. Ives (2010). 

Himalayan lakes outburst, at today geological conditions can potentially produce flood 
of circa 7000 cubic meters of water per second. Womi (2012). 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 20 
A chain of events made these lakes collapse and produce a series of waves that travelled 
for over 1000 kilometers over the flat plains of West India along the two large rivers 
present at the time, the Indus and the Sarasvati, channeled among two mountain ranges, 
the Sulhaiman Range to the west, and the Aravalli Range to the east. [Fig.4] Several 
scholars studying the Indus Valley Civilization mention periodic floods occuring in the 
valley. Wheeler (1953b p.26). In Harappan sites like Mohenjo-Daro, archaeologists 
explain that floods and droughts were the reason for the end of the Indus Valley Culture. 
A new approach to the Biblical flood explains how the world were destroyed, but not 
from the ocean, as we hear from different sources, but from the mountains. Atlantis and 
the Garden of Eden was buried not under the sea, but under a wave of mud, while the 
mountain where the Citadel of Atlantis stood is still there, emerging from land destroyed 
by a deluge that filled its canals, ports, lakes, fountains, all the sacred waters, all the 
essence of Atlantis. Plato mention that shepherds survived the flood. 

The flood came down from the Himalayas, destroying villages, farms, plantations, 
buildings, everything but the Citadel. This tip of the city-state was a symbol, a holy icon 
emerging from underground and depicted in many cultures either in drawings or as a 
character in gliphs or ideograms as a peak or a tree emerging from the waters. Melting 
ice then raised the level of the world’s oceans by 120 metres while a shoal of mud 
blocked all passages and water supplies. 

3.2 And God made men 

The Gods sharing the land had given this part of the world to Poseidon. He descended to 
Earth over Girnar Mountain and met a local girl, Cleito. Ten boys were bom to them 
and these became the first Kings of Atlantis. They divided the land north of the 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 21 
mountain-complex. Here, priests, military men, farmers and husbandmen lived with 
their families in a state referred to by Plato as “The Ideal State” or “The Golden Age of 

The Ten Kings were hybrids, half men and half Gods, and the lions living in the 
surrounding area became their symbol. Lions are present only in this part of India and in 
Africa. [Fig. 6]. 

The nearby Gir Forest National Park is a famous place where Indians visit their 
country’s symbols, the lion and the spoked wheel. The mountain complex near the park 
is, in fact, shaped like a spoked wheel. [Fig. 1 ]. 

The geological origin of this complex was from a volcanic eruption that pushed up the 
rocks, granite and basalt around 65 million years ago, long before the Himalayas, which 
are only 50 million years old. A night thermal image of the complex reveals that the 
mountain-complex is constantly hot, the source of the photo explain that is the heat 
generated by magma deep underground. Fountains of cold water are still collected at the 
top; however, the hot sources were disrupted in earlier times, 
The shape of Girnar Mountain as seen from the west is like a romboidal pyramid. 
[Fig.7] From the northeast, three pyramidal peaks are visible, similar to a trident, and 
the one in the centre resembles the roof of a Hindu temple or a Buddhist stupa. [Fig. 8] 

A series of stairs have existed on the west and north side since ancient times, and the 
result resembles a pyramid with stairs in the middle and a temple on the top. The two 
staircases were built to serve the lake ports on the two sides of the mountain. 
A mountain with stairs that climb to the temple on the top where God descended to 
create mankind, where the King-God ascended to the sky after death to be born again: 
we are witnessing the objective vision of thousands of years of human history. 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 22 
Temples and shrines around the complex show cobras, turtles and miniatures of the 
mountain with eyes. [Fig.9]. A group of Jain temples have been present on the top of 
Girinagar since the 13 th Century CE. 

A carving has been made on the granite, behind a temple called Vastupal-Tejpal, in front 
of a megalithic wall, the carving does not appear to be related to any recent use; it seems 
to have been made to channel water from the wall towards a small cave, possibly a 
ritual well. This, is visible because exposure to rain does not allow dirt and debris to 
cover the granite; every monsoon season regularly washes this particular area. 

At the back of the temple a wall has been built, closing off the ancient stairs. [Fig. 10]. 
The wall appears to have been built with large stones taken from an older structure; 
some blocks have symbols and haute-reliefs which are not used by more recent religions 
and cultures while some of the symbols have been included in later religions but their 
meaning and the reasons for their inclusion are not clear. [Fig.l 1], 

On the north side of this major temple complex there is a house where some Jain monks 
live. Two ponds are present, one with running water, a second with an insert of stairs all 
around it so that it looks like a ritual well and does not match with the rest of the new 
monastery. Stairs coming out from the water have been closed off with a wall. 

Despite the various changes and destruction, the water sources and ponds are still well 
maintained since the people who climb the mountain complex have a vital need for 
water. For our hypothesis the temples’ foundations and all the work related to water can 
eventually become an important clue in discovering the original design. Throughout 
Hinduism it is common to see icons such as the spoked wheel; Vishnu always holds a 
wheel, also called a chakra, meaning a discus. The use of the circle in religious 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 23 
iconography or any other symbolic reference is often associated with the Sun. Now, 
because of the findings related to Atlantis, a new question has arisen. When does a 
discus or halo really mean ‘sun’, and when, alternatively, is it a representation of the 
Ring of Girinagar? We suspect that most of the ancient symbols used in all religions are 
derived from Atlantis, and therefore a circle or discus might be a representation of the 
Gimar mountain-complex Ring rather than the Sun. The tradition of God being on top 
of Mount Gimar can be depicted as a head above a circle; use of this graphic 
representation gives a divine attribute to any figure shown with a circular shape in the 

The Ring of Girinagar might also represent a circular Zodiac. At specific times of year 
a section of the Ring would have had specific stars above it and an astrological sign was 
given to each section of the mountain Ring. 

Consequently, zodiacs and megaliths which functioned as astronomical observatories 
were built in all parts of the world. This could be the result of early teachings from the 
priest-scientists of Atlantis. Several Indian scholars support the tradition that India was 
the place where astronomy first developed. [Video File YouTube] "Indian Civilization, 
The Untold Story". Studies of science were first applied in architecture, medicine, 
administration, chemistry, mechanic, agriculture and religion, and the diaspora of 
Atlantis spread this science to Mesopotamia, Greece, Rome, Egypt, Mexico and Pern, 
but the source of the original teaching has been lost. Oursel (1934b p. 19). The Arabs, 
the Greeks, and finally the Europeans took art and science like alchemy from Atlantis 
into their hands as their own studies and creation, this because in Alexandria and during 
the Middle Age the Christians burned all the books from pagan cultures, so later during 
the Age of Renaissance they translated to latin the copies left from outside sources, in 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 24 
the process many works of early Indian priests had been attributed as Europeans and 
Arabs. The Ring of Atlantis was the first astronomical observatory, seen as a half 
sphere; possibly, several devices were created to pinpoint objects in the sky, and over 
thousands of years maps of the sky were made. This can eventually explain the 
knowledge of the movement of planets and stars found in various cultures around the 
world. [Fig.5], 

3.3 The Ideal State 

3.3.1) Plato gave a detailed account of the layout of Atlantis: “ Around the city there is a 
fertile plain The two islands of Rann of Kach and Khatiawar were the domains of the 
kingdom with farms spreading towards the northwest of India which eventually 
expanded in later times after the end of Atlantis. [Fig. 22], 

3.3.2) “you came to a wall which began at the sea and went all round: this was 
everywhere distant fifty stadia from the largest zone or harbour... The old unit of 
stadia is equal to 177,6 meters, so in total this measurement is 8,9 Km. 

This reference can be the space in between the external city wall and the West Port 
(Right after the Sanatoria, the building mentioned in paragraph 3.3.8) The settlement 
seems to have the same size of the ideal city find in the Qumran Scrolls, with a width of 
29Km (East to West), and a lenght of 21Km (North to South) the measurements concide 
with the ones given by Plato: applying the measure of 8,9 Km from the West limit of the 
perimeter we find exactly the entrance of the Port on the West Canal of Atlantis (Old 


Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 25 

3.3.3) “The hill has been broken by Poseidon inserting circles of land and water”. 
Inside the Ring we can distinguish five major round areas: three lakes, one on the north 
side and two on the west side; and two agricultural areas, one to the east and one to the 
south. From Timeaus of Plato: "When, on the other hand, the gods purge the earth with 
a deluge of water, the survivors in your country are herdsmen and shepherds who dwell 
on the mountains, but those who, like you, live in cities are carried by the rivers into the 
sea”. Shepehrds working on the side of Mt.Girnar where saved from the flood of 

“The area had water springs, both cold and warm ”, Gujarat state has thermal water 
sources still active, 

3.3.4) “...orichalcum, was dug out of the earth in many parts of the island, being more 
precious in those days than anything except gold”. This metal might be pure copper, a 
stable red metal used in thin sheets to cover walls and pillars, possibly imprinted with 
writing, leaving the characters clear for a long time. Copper mines in Gujarat: 

3.3.5) ‘‘There was an abundance of wood for carpenters ”. Wood has been carried along 
the Indus River on boats since ancient times. Mcintosh (2007d p.15). “...and animals, 
including elephants ”. Again, the forests of India have elephants, and these are the only 
places where this animal lives outside Africa. (As Indocina was part of India is possible 
that the elephants of Indocina may have been introduced by them). 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 26 
“...these canals were at intervals of a hundred stadia, and by them they brought down 
the wood from the mountains to the city, and conveyed the fruits of the earth in ships, 
cutting transverse passages from one canal into another, and to the city”. Plato 
mentions a large fleet of thousands of vessels in the docks of Atlantis. The ancient Indus 
Valley had teak trees growing on the higher ground of Gujarat. This wood is suitable for 
shipbuilding because it is water-resistant. Mcintosh (2008e p. 141). 

3.3.6) ‘‘The cultivated fruit of the earth, both the dry edible fruit and other species of 
food, which we call by the general name of legumes, and the fruits having a hard rind, 
affording drinks, and meats, and ointments, and good store of chestnuts and the like, 
which may be used to play with, and are fruits which spoil with keeping and the 
pleasant kinds of dessert which console us after dinner, when we are full and tired of 
eating all these that sacred island lying beneath the sun brought forth fair and 
wondrous in infinite abundance”. The region of Gujarat offers a large and rich variety 
of fruits, nuts and vegetables. The fruit mentioned with hard rind is coconut, also very 
common here; it contains water to drink, has meat inside and produces oil. [Fig. 12], 

3.3.7) Plato mentions a large hydraulic system made of canals. On the north side of the 
Ring there is a large valley that could once have been a canal supplying water to an 
internal lake. [Fig. 13], From the western side there is another valley towards the inte¬ 
rior, also viable for a waterway. A third lake was located just south of the canal, where a 
small river bed connecting the two lakes is still visible. [Fig. 14]. On two sides of the 
Ring Plato mentions the existence of two rivers; in fact, they still flow there today, on 
the western side, the Ozat, and to the east, the Bhadar. [Fig. 15] [Fig. 16], 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 27 
These and other rivers outside the complex were carved out in the shape of artificial 
canals as the third ring, a technique still used today to create large irrigation waterways. 
In the distant past this region had much more water. The Sarasvati River system had 
thousand of settlements destroyed and buried by floods. Mcintosh (2007f pp. 18-20). 

The detailed measurements of the canals given by Plato fit the spaces between the 
circular hills and the base of the mountain; the Atlanteans created lakes and canals in a 
convenient and regular pattern. Still today the land inside the Ring is fairly flat. 

"...also they made cisterns, some open to the heavens, others roofed over, to be used in 
winter as warm baths Open cisterns and wells are still in use today throughout the 
Indus Valley. Water storage, public baths and spas were in use even before the Romans. 

3.3.8) “One kind of stone was white, another black, and a third red; and, as they 
quarried, they at the same time hollowed out docks double within, having roofs formed 
out of the native rock”. The white rock is limestone while the black and red colours on 
granite are due to ageing that forms a patina, either black or red; alternatively, the black 
rock could be basalt, a volcanic material present at Girinagar. [Fig. 18]. 

The Atlanteans also used terracotta to decorate walls, printing pictures with a seal 
stamp, seals were used in the time of Harappan to write on fresh clay. [Fig. 19]. 

An extremely interesting structure, in large part still standing today, is the Sanatoria, 
located on the right ha nk of the western canal, just outside the Ring. We believe the 
Sanatoria is a type of building that later was used in Egypt to heal the sick and to keep 
infected people in isolation. The specific use of this structure was to help cure travellers 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 28 
arriving from far away from diseases and wounds. It was probably considered a sacred 
building, like a temple, a space where the intervention of God was needed to cure and 
resuscitate the sick. This could have been the first hospital in history. Wilkinson (2000a 

The Sanatoria [Fig.20], has a ‘U’ shape facing towards the canal. The ground floor is 
three metres high in order to prevent water from flooding the interior during the rainy 
season; it features internal water tanks, a separate toilet, several baths, a kitchen with 
closed rooms to store food, a sleeping ward and an open room with a square in the 
middle, probably a place for a sacred statue to be watered regularly. 

The Egyptian temples were built with water and plants around the compound Wilkinson 
(2000b p.72), while drawings of the sky with stars shone in the cupula above. The 
Egyptians reproduced a microcosmos to recall the memory of the primordial original 
mound Wilkinson (2000c pp.36, 76-77), possibly representing the Girnar mountain- 
complex city of Atlantis. 

All the Sanatoria complex was made by carving into a large limestone rock, in Plato’s 
description of the buildings of Atlantis, as the Sanatoria, were carved out from native 
rock; on the roof a drainage system was used to divert rain down to the storage tanks, 
two stairways head to the rooftop, all these features are also details of old Egyptian 
temples. Wilkinson (2000d p.68). The rooftop of the structure present today shows a 
deep corrosion of the limestone (More then 15 cm), which indicates a very long 
exposure to the elements, beginning soon after the drainage was made. 

The style of the portico, with large square columns, resembles early Egyptian buildings 
like the Osireion: sacred water lakes or tanks with stairs inside, a flat roof, an entrance 
made using a ramp, the stairs visible at the top of the front ramp have been built during 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 29 

recent restorations; in contrast, late Indian buildings had access to the interior by steps. 
Egyptian temples replicated the original mound rising above the water, like the 
mountain emerging from a lake in the complex of Girinagar. Comparison of Egypt with 
Atlantis reveals the Nile culture somehow became the new location of the Atlanteans 
after the diaspora. 

There are several pieces of evidence found by archaelogists in the Indus Valley that 
recall the Egyptian world: the burial of the deceased with personal objects Wheeler 
(1953c p.48); the use of the Egyptian cubit for measurement Wheeler (1953d pp.62, 82); 
we add the analogies between the Harappan and Egyptian forms of writing. 

We strongly believe that a common form of writing was in use in ancient times. The 
characters were deliberately tilted 90°, 180°, or reversed as in a mirror; this technique 
was used among different cultures in order to distinguish one people from another. 

The origin of the Egyptian hieroglyphs could be the early Harappan, probably also used 
in Atlantis. The Harrapan seals became the Egyptian Cartuche, and specific 
differentiation of the characters was made. 

In another building, far away from the Sanatoria, we found a series of hieroglyphs 
resembling archaic Egyptian writing, glyphs which had been printed on fresh clay, then 
dried, which call to mind an extremely old form of writing. 

The Sanatoria is a simple space, a transition between a cave and a building, a step 
beyond the space of a primitive cave. 

The only decorations visible in the Sanatoria are small statues of male goats or rams 
bearing long horns; later seen as guardians in Luxor, or in Sumeria as the emblem of the 
Father-king, called Zagaga (Zagg, Zakh or Zax). 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 30 
The walls of the Sanatoria have been vandalized. Unfortunately, although this is 
supposed to be a Unesco Heritage site, this space is used inappropriately by intruders. 
After over 11,500 years, the Sanatoria should be buried under metres of dirt, but unlike 
the Indus Valley, where sites have been found under more then ten meters of dirt, the 
location of the Sanatoria presents different conditions. The building stands under a steep 
slope and at the mouth of a river that, during monsoon, can be inundated severely 
enough to literally wash the structure away if it was not so massive. Local people have 
kept using this building up to the present day as a refuge from the heat and rain. The 
ground floor could have been buried, but it was made higher because of the periodical 
flooding of the western canal, so the first floor and the roof were kept free of dirt by the 
people living in the area . The deluge that swept away the Atlantean civilisation at the 
end of the last Ice Age was a unique event in human history for this area. The location 
of Girinagar is too far from the Himalayas to suffer subsequent recurrent floods like 
those which hit the middle and lower regions of the Indus after the end of the Ice Age 
so it was not buried under dirt and mud. 

The similarities between Atlantis and Egypt could be the link between the people of 
Paleolithic times and the classic civilizations as we know them. 

In the Egyptian religion we kn ow of a war between the Gods Seth and Horo (Homs the 
Elder or Haroeris), Seth was Kur for the Sumerians, when Kur died the water rose over 
the land. Seth was the God of the underground, master of all violent natural events. 
When Seth triumphed over Horo and destroyed Atlantis, the priests left this land, 
travelling by boat to Egypt, the second land, where they built the Osireion in Abydos. 
All links to India were cut forever. The three main peaks of Mount Girnar became the 
three pyramids of Giza as seen from the northeastern side. 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 31 
The Sphinx, in the shape of a lion, the symbol of the first kings of Atlantis, is looking 
eastwards in memory of the Primordial Land of the First Era, guarding the new land 
from the evil Seth. The walkway on the western side of the Great Pyramid is 800 meters 
long while the Crest of Mount Girnar is 900 metres long. 

All pyramids around the world with temples on top where inspiration of Mount Girnar. 
The Nile flooded the Giza plateau for millennia simulating the old mound surrounded 
by lakes, the water marks on the Sphinx and its Temple are evidence of these events. 

Our concept of Atlantis is of a highly humanistic and noble society where teaching and 
basic needs were available to all people. Although Plato describes the people of this 
land as particularly aggressive, we believe that armed conflicts were the ultimate 
resource to defend the land. We suggest that Atlantis had produced the civilizations of 
Etruria and Roma, cultural colonies of India of the Old Father-kings. In Central Italy, in 
the Etrurian artefacts and affrescos are visible features of tropical locations, beside 
symbols and icons found in tropical India. 

3.3.9) Plato gives a detailed description of the land, including measurement in stadia: 
The island was 533 km from west to east and 359 km from north to south. A long time 
ago the Ranns of Kach and Kathiawar were islands Mcintosh (2007g p.22), probably 
before floods brought large quantities of alluvial material which filled the shallow 
canals. These two islands were separated from the continent, and from each other by 
canals. Their combined size was almost precisely the measurement given by Plato. The 
islands may have been larger when ocean levels were lower and more land was exposed 
prior to the last Ice Age. 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 3 2 
“...the city was a level plain, itself surrounded by mountains which descended towards 
the sea”. The mountains heading toward the sea seems to be: on the west side, the 
Sulaiman and Kirthar ranges, and on the east, the Aravalli range. [Fig. 4]. 

3.3.10) The mountain described by Plato, was said to be 900 metres circa long on the 
top. Girnar mountain has six major peaks, but the total length of the crest is about 900 
metres. From Critias: “The diameter of the island on which the palace stood was about 
5 stadia (1 Stadia is 177,60 meters)”. This means about 900 metres, which is the size of 
Mount Girnar. 

3.3.11) “The surrounding mountains were celebrated for their number and size and 
beauty, far beyond any which still exist, having in them also many wealthy villages of 
country folk, and rivers, and lakes, and meadows supplying food enough for every 
animal, wild or tame, and much wood of various sorts, abundant for each and every 
kind of work”. A view of the north of India seems to be a portrait of the passage above: 
the Himalayan mountains, large and beautiful, where many villages were built in a 
region rich in water and natural resources, extending down towards the Indus 

3.3.12) “The whole country was said by him to be very lofty and precipitous on the side 
of the sea ” Here Plato tells us that on the southern side there was a precipice. Before the 
end of the Ice Age over 11,500 years ago, the level of the world sea was 120 metres 
lower than it is today, so there is the possibility that the Continental Shelf, now under 
water, was exposed, and from the undersea map a cliff is, in fact, clearly visible at a 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 33 
short distance from the beach. This region of Asia is also subject to strong tectonic 
variations. (Movements up and down of the Earth crust). 

3.3.13) “It received the streams which came down from the mountains, and winding 
round the plain and meeting at the city, was there let off into the sea. Further inland, 
likewise,straight canals of a hundred feet in width were cut from it through the plain, 
and again let off into the ditch leading to the sea: these canals were at intervals of a 
hundred stadia, and by them they brought down the wood from the mountains to the 
city, and conveyed the fruits of the earth in ships, cutting transverse passages from one 
canal into another, and to the city”. Archaelogists have found in northern and western 
Gujarat evidence of a large river system and traces of canals and dams. Mcintosh 
(2007h p.19). 

The account also says that the plain was 10,000 stadia from the sea to the mountains, 
about 1770 kilometers. Northwest India is about 1400 kilometers from the ocean to the 
base of the Himalayas, and the length of the Indus River is about 3180 kilometers. The 
Indus is navigable and still used for shipping goods. Mcintosh (2007i p.19-20). 

The delta of the Indus River is now located further north than it was in the ancient past. 
In northwest India there were a total of seven rivers including the Sarasvati. Mcintosh 
(2007j pp.3,21). 

A passage in the Critias dialogue says: “...the waters, which flowed in a triple circle 
around their ancient metropolis, in a useful manner We see a modem artistic drawing 
of the city of Atlantis surrounded by three canals going around the circumference: the 
first ring was the natural circle made by the mountains, the second ring was at 8,9 Km 
from the entrance of the West canal, the third ring was carved out from the two rivers 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 34 

surrounding the complex. As seen in this map: [Fig. 15]. 

3.3.14) Of Atlantis, Plato said: “...and in the centre of the larger of the two there was set 
apart a race-course of a stadium in width, and in length allowed to extend all round the 
island, for horses to race in Here, Plato means in the center of the two dry land areas 
inside the Ring of Atlantis. At the old Indus site of Mohenjo-Daro, the world’s oldest 
stadium has been found. 

Plato also describes scenes of life, structures of the military, agricultural organizations, 
royal palace activities, details of public administration, and artistic decorations made 
with different materials, including gold (India has gold mines). The Greek 
philosopher’s account also mentions the laws written by Poseidon on orichalcum, 
probably pure copper. This metal can be produced in sheets and printed; it is also stable 
and ageing only produces a thin patina of green dust. The character of the writing might 
have been early Harappan. [Fig.21], 

There is a point in the account of Plato that does not match with Gujarat: the weather. In 
Critias, Plato mentions summer (In Gujarat this is called Kharif) as a season when it 
was necessary to irrigate the land, but today India has the monsoon in this season, 
bringing needed rain for agricultural activities. 

“ Twice in the year they gathered the fruits of the earth in winter having the benefit of 
the rains of heaven, and in summer the water which the land supplied by introducing 
streams from the canals 

The winter season in Gujarat is called Rabi, and today it is dry whereas Plato describes 
winter as the wet season. According to Mcintosh (2007k p. 15), the Indus Valley at that 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 35 
time had rain in both seasons. It is possible that, because of the drastic changes in the 
amount of ice present on the Himalayas or variations in the Earth’s movements, the 
weather pattern in India may have changed. 

However, in a passage of Critias, Plato says: “In winter, through the protection of the 
Gods, the soil was sheltered from rains and floods 

Variable weather patterns have played a decisive role in the development of India. The 
high instability of the climate, generated by the presence of the Himalayas, has had a 
strong influence on the course of history. Menzel (2014). 

Also, see the long term changes in Indian orography in the work of Shekhar (2010). 

3.3.15) Plato talks of a large continent behind the island of Atlantis, which could be 
India, where numerous herds of animals, both domestic and wild, and a large number of 
elephants live; despite its high population density, India still has many natural heritage 
sites with elephants and other animals found; nowhere else but Africa, has the natural 
scenario depicted by the Greeks. “ There was passage for the seafarers of those time to 
the other islands, and from the islands to all the opposite continent which bounds that 
ocean truly named”. 

The Atlanteans explored the Pacific Ocean in ancient times, although to what extent is 
not yet known; Roman and Phoenician ships from the Mediterranean may have also 
secretly explored the Atlantic Ocean, and there is no doubt that Indonesia and the rest 
of the Pacific Ocean were well known to the men of those times. Therefore, the ocean 
‘truly named’ by Plato could be the Pacific Ocean. 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 36 

4. The Talmud and Atlantis 

In the book The Ten Lost Tribes: a World History written in 2009 by Zvi Ben-Dor 
Benite, we find references to the story regarding the Ten Tribes. Many, if not all, refe¬ 
rences strongly point in the direction of West India, not just as the site of the origin of 
the Jews but also as the site for other stories in the Talmud and in the Qumran Scrolls. 
The land north of Atlantis was divided into ten regions, each ruled by a king and his 
tribe. When Atlantis was destroyed by a natural event, it appears that the survivors 
departed, leaving a minority to carry on their legacy. This assumption is based on the 
many similarities to Atlantis found in other cultures, including the later Indus Valley 
Civilization. It is not clear according to this hypothesis when the diaspora of Atlantis 
began, yet the features and life of cities like Lothal, Mohenjo-Daro, Dholavira and 
Harappa clearly had Atlantis as their primary ancestor. 

The written evidence points towards a new home for the Atlanteans. Tibet, 
Mesopotamia, and in particular, Egypt were destinations where their legacy arrived to 
begin a new future. 

Among the people leaving Atlantis there must have been a group from every one of the 
ten tribes. Later on, their descendants had a picture of the ten tribes imprinted on their 
memory. We believe that the Jews of today, like all the descendants of Atlantis, partially 
changed their culture. Other classic civilizations as distant as the Americas retained a 
nebulous memory of this ancestral past in their oral traditions. 

4.1) The first point of the diaspora needs to explain the location from where the ten tri¬ 
bes departed, a place near a river called Sambatyon: “The breadth of that river is 200 
cubits bowshot, and the river is full of large and small stones and the sound of them 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 3 7 

rumbles like a great storm, like a tempest at sea and, in the night, the sound of it is 
heard for a day’s journey and they have with them six wells and they all unite into one 
lake and there from they irrigate their land, and therein are clean edible fish. The river 
runs and the stones and sand rumble during the six working days, but on the seventh 
day it rest and is tranquil until the end of Sabbath. And on the other side of the river on 
side where the four tribes dwell, is a fire which flames on Sabbath and no man can 
approach within a mile”. Benite (2009a pp.18, 105). We must first consider that the 
Sarasvati was a seasonal river which has now dried up. Nearby, to the west, we find the 
Indus, which also shows similarities with the description of the Sambatyon. In Rajastan, 
North of Gujarat, near the City of Ajmer there is a lake called, Sambarh. 

4.2) The second story is of a Jewish man travelling from Portugal to India after the 
sinking of his boat, lost at sea. He arrived on a mysterious beach where the local people 
knew the words of his jewish prayers. Benite (2009b p.30). 

4.3) After travelling in the Mediterranean and Middle East, between 1159 and 1173 CE, 
a Spanish rabbi, Benjamin of Tudela, left a detailed record of his journey. Benjamin 
described the land of the ten tribes: “... as fairly populated and with a large army with 
princes and kings. This location is near two rivers coming from the Garden of Eden 
These rivers were possibly the Indus and the Sarasvati coming from the Garden of 
Eden. Benite (2009c p.118-119). 

4.4) “Located in the foothills of the Alvand mountain chain, it was close to the ancient 
city ofNahavand. The old biblical locations of the ten tribes were ‘‘the cities of Medes, ” 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 38 

and the Talmud mentions Nahavand and the mountains of Salug (Snow Mountains) in 
connection to them. Here, a large Jewish community is present at 5 days walking 
distance to the Persian city of Samarkand”. 

Nahavand could be synonymous with “Naga-vand”, while the snow mountains seem to 
be the Himalayas where the western range is located five days journey by horse from 
the Persian city of Samarkand. Benite (2009d p. 120-121). 

4.5) Benjamin mentions the ethnic group of the Scythians (The old West India is now 
Pakistan), as the origin of the ten tribes. Benite (2009e p. 125). 

“Here the ten tribes retreated, and changed from the Tatar or Tartar area to Scythia. 
Since then they are called Gauths or Gauthens, confirming God’s highest glory.” 
Benite (2009f p.169). 

Here we notice the use of a name with the root ga often used in West India. 

The suffix gad is common in this part of India to name villages. 

4.6) From Theodor Zwinger (1533-1588) on the Ten Tribes: “They were first “led by 
Shalmanesser to the Western borders of Persia and then until the river Gozan or 
Ganges. They then proceeded to the extreme angle of Asia, that is to say, to Arzareth 
which is the best part of the land of the Scythian people, or their ancestors. They arrive 
in there spontaneously while singing Gaou or Gaoth, or Oaoth,that is a word employed 
by Moses in the song of crossing the sea, [a word] that by secret mystery sings the 
victory of God. The “Song on the Sea, sung by Moses after the crossing of the Red 

Sea”. Benite (2009gp. 171). 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 39 
Moses was an Egyptian priest, probably Tuthmosis I of the XVIII Dinasty, he escaped 
through Jordan and by boat he arrived in Gujarat, former Atlantis, a land beyond the 
reach of the Pharaoh. Sinai and bordering regions were under the control of Egypt, 
unlikely that anyone running from the Pharaoh were hiding there. After 40 years his 
daughter Queen Hatshepsut organized a secret travel to Gujarat with her Egyptian army, 
to a place in India called Punt, erroriously located in Central Africa. The Egyptians 
brought Moses and his people back to Sinai and probably help them with the first battle 
to establish Jerusalem in their Promised Land. As a matter of facts, at the time of the 
XVIII Dinasty the Egyptian began fighting in the present location of Israel, and this has 
been done throughout the dinasty by all Pharaohs, this is evidence of historical events. 

In the Egyptian mysteries going back to Atlantis there was taboo; it was forbidden to 
mention the land along with Horo, the name they gave to one of their Gods who had 
been destroyed by the God Seth. Symbolically, they brought his body to Egypt and 
buried him in an empty coffin. Atlantis had to be forgotten. 

This hypothesis finds considerable evidence in history, clearly the Israelites were not 
hiding in Sinai for 40 years, the land of the Pharaoh, but in a secret place of which we 
have no record, this method can also trace evidences according to obvious human 
behaviours. The Israelites received help once again from God, the God that apparently 
died or abandoned Atlantis because it became morally corrupt. Moses received the Ten 
Commandments on Mount Girnar and he was promised a land, today’s Israel. On page 
95 of Benite’s book we read: “Crossing the Sambatyon means being in concealment, 
but crucially it also means becoming different from all the residents of the earth 
The Talmud refers to Mount Sinai as a mountain where there was a natural fire burning 
free, that could have been a volcano and this Indian location is in fact of volcanic origin. 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 40 
The Biblical flood and the story of Noah’s Ark also took place here in Atlantis. Now we 
can assume that the Old Testament and the Vedas finally have an objective 
ground around today's city of Junagadh. If we consider the name of the city were once 
stood Atlantis, today Junagadh, we notice that is made of the letters: Ju from the local 
tribe of the Joon, Naga, the people of the Sun-Serpent and Gad, a suffix often used in 
West India to name villages. The European Aryans, the Indians, the Egyptians, the 
Israelites and the Atlantideans, were, as a matter of fact, the same people. “The song, “I 
will sing unto the Lord, for he hath triumphed gloriously, ” contains the repetitive 
phrase “Ga’oh Ga’ah, ” which cannot be fully translated”. Benite (2009h p. 172). The 
Talmud tells about this song, where a name beginning with the syllable ga is frequently 

The Christians, like the Egyptians, believed that India was ruled by the devil. Although 
he was known as, Seth to the Egyptians, other names were used later on. The old 
Indian name Sanatana Dharma became Satana, the devil who appeared to men 
disguised as a snake in this Garden of Eden; Seth the spirit of the underworld became a 
devil in his hell for the Christians too. India had to be forgotten. 

Old Gods were often transformed into devils by new religions. Rapson (1922 p.76). 

4.7) “Only ten years earlier, the Reverend Claudius Buchanan (1766-1815), a Scottish 
missionary appointed to a chaplaincy in Calcutta, declared that he had found evidence 
of the tribes ’ residence in India or in neighboring Afghanistan: we have reason to 
believe that the Ten Tribes so long lost if they exist in a body at all have at length been 

found”. Benite (2009i p.221). 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 41 
4.8) The book: “Travels of the Jesuits, into Various Parts of the World", published in 
London in 1762, also discussed Jesuit reports that people in India, China, or Japan could 
be the tribes’ offspring”. Benite (2009j p.223). 

The word mbi means winter, and is still used today in Gujarat. This word has an 
obvious similarity with the name for the head priests of the Jews. If Atlantis was the 
original land, the land of the fathers of Judaism, the use of the word rabi can be an 
interesting point to follow. Because the kings of Atlantis appointed men to organize and 
manage agriculture on a regional scale, the priest-scientists may have been men who 
knew the calendar and astronomy, the men in charge of issues that involved science. As 
we know, science and religion are still today related to the divine scheme of the 
Universe. Ancient calendars were made as zodiacs (Produced on a round stone or a 
terracotta artefact) because the passing of time is in relation to the movement of stars 
and planets. The first zodiacs might have come from Atlantis. The makers and holders 
of calendars were the priest-scientists, so the title Rabbi for priests might have 
originated from this part of the world at the time of Atlantis. 

5. The Mahabharata and the Sun-Serpent 

One of the names that comes out of research in the Indian Veda is of people associated 
with the cobra. Although the name Naga is not directly mentioned in the Veda, we 
believe that the Nagas people had a close relation with Atlantis. Further research into a 
bibliography published in Britain during the Indian occupation has revealed important 
references related to ancient India. Scholars, military men and historians produced a 
remarkable series of texts about the ethnic group called Nagas, the people who 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 42 
worshipped the Sun-Serpent. (The original Nagas were from Gujarat in West India, 
then, during the 13 th Century CE , some people coming from what is today China were 
also called the Nagas of Nagaland, but they had no connection to the tribe of Gujarat). 
Although we know from Rapson (1922a p.79), that the ancient Indian books of the Veda 
do not explicitly mention the origin of the people in India, we have used the references 
available to correlate the forgotten city-state of Atlantis with the mountain-complex in 

As seen in Oldham (1905c pp. 30-31), the Brahamanic writing describes the “Celestial 
Serpent” as belonging to Surya, the Sun demigod, chief of the “Solar Race”. This 
believe, in India and other countries, is that the Naga Kings, or Rajas, claimed to be 
descendants of this ancient solar race and to be able to control the elements. Oldham 
(1905d p.8). The veneration of the serpent is rooted in ancient India and remains part of 
today’s orthodox Hinduism. The various books of the Veda do not mention the name 
Naga, instead Serpas is used, of this it is said of being demons. Oldham (1905e p.7). 
According to Oldham (1905f p.42), the mention of the serpent in the Vedas means that 
the story of the serpent is an early account of the history of India; the serpent is 
connected to the sacrality of water, either natural rivers or ritual wells called Surat 
Kund, pools of the Sun. 

Brahmanical writers describe the Nagas as a highly civilized people who built castles 
made of stone, possessed democratic institutions, mastered superior architecture, studied 
astronomy, used magic, medicine and surgery, and had knowledge capable of 
resuscitating men from death. Oldham (1905g pp.8, 53-54). These Brdhmana style of 
the Vedas hide secret knowledge, interlinking concepts known only by the Priests, this 
reveal strong similarities with the Sumerian and Egyptian style of writing. 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 43 
There is evidence that Shamanism may have been a component of the religious beliefs 
of the Harappas, a late civilization in the Indus Valley we believe descended from 
Atlantis. Ratnagar (2001). 

The abundance of teak wood allowed the Naga to build solid ships and engage in what 
the Mahabharata calls “The Churning of the Ocean”. The Mahabharata also mentions 
that the ocean was like home to the Naga. Oldham (1905h pp.59-60). The use of teak 
wood is mentioned in paragraph 3.3.5 from the work on the Indus Valley by the 
archaelogist McIntosh. 

We believe that the Atlanteans knew a great deal about sailing and were the first people 
to explore lands far from India, leaving traces of their passage in other Sun and Serpent 
oriented cultures in the Americas. These two statues of Naga Kings (Rajas) [Fig.22] are 
from the village of Badrinath, (Uttarakhand) in the north of India. One of the kings 
wears a square hood similar to the one worn by Viracocha at the Sun Temple of 
Tiahuanaco, in Bolivia; the second has a hood made of nine cobras which looks like the 
feathered headdress of a Native American. As seen in Cooper (1873 p.76), the Native 
Americans include the serpent in their religion. At death, the Naga kings became Gods 
(Deo or Deva). Oldham (1905i p.68). The title Raja, which denoted the Indian kings, 
has the root of Ra, one of the Gods of Egypt; the symbol of Ra is the circle of Girinar 
with a dot in the middle representing the mountain or original mound surrounded by the 

Studying the close relationship between Atlantis and Egypt, we need to take into 
consideration that around Mount Gimar live sacred animals: several kinds of birds, 
cows monkeys, vultures, lions, snakes, crocodiles, leopards, and possibly in the past, 
other species. Ancient stories show the presence of an old culture more advanced then 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 44 
the rest of the primitive world: “ The Naga were expert navigators, possessed very 
considerable naval resources, and had founded colonies upon distance coasts. The 
trident of Neptune was borrowed from the Naga demigods, and the conchshell of the 
Tritons was used by the Asuras before them ”. [Fig.23]. Oldham (1905j p.63). 

In the Indian Books of Veda, in particular the Puranas, we often read of the Cosmic 
Mountain or Mount Meru as the original mound where men was made, the vertical pillar 
connecting the Gods to men. The Sumerians mentioned the Sacred Mountain, Meluhha. 
The Egyptians mentioned the Land of the Gods, Ta Neteru, or Land of Love, Ta Mery. 
One section of Mahabharata is a book called: Shrimad Bhagavad Gita, here we found a 
story of an elephant known by the name of Gajendra. The story of Gajendra happen in a 
place near an old and big mountain called: Three Peaks, the width and the height of this 
mountain are equals, around it there is a lake with many beautiful flowers and animals 
like crocodiles, lions and elephants, the proportion and setting match Mount Gimar. 

The three peaks of this sacred mountain are made of gold, silver and iron, the peaks 
stand as statues toward the sky, Plato often mention the use of three materials to 
decorate the palace of Atlantis. From this mountain many waterfalls come down feeding 
a number of rivers and golden lakes. Our conclusion on this last findings is that Gujarat 
and Mount Girnar is the place where the stories of the Vedas took place, the Ring of 
Gimar is the Chakra that Brahma send on Earth to the wise man Shaunaka and his 

Gimar the sacred Mountain of humanity, where among its forests lived Krishna, the 
sacred child, from warrior to God, Krishna experienced many stories of the oral 
tradition; the historians tell us that he lived in the village of Dvaraka, on the cost of 
Gujarat, probably the ancient Dwarka found under the ocean on the same coast. 

Mountain-Complex City of Atlantis 45 


The results of this research have the potential to link the written records with a physical 
place in a location that is credible. Virtually this entire section of history falls into place 
when comparing the evidence from many years of work by archaeologists. 

The discovery of the place where Atlantis once stood is a turning point to explain thou¬ 
sands of years of missing links. True research into the history of humanity could begin 
from here, and further findings can shed light on chapters deliberately kept in darkness, 
often by men hiding in underground obscurity. 

This is Atlantis, Aztlan, the Old Jerusalem of the Qumran Scrolls, the Mount Meluhha 
Mountain of Heaven and Earth of the Sumerians, memories of the Egyptian Zep Tepi, a 
place where humanity might have seen other species of men and Gods living on the 
Sacred Mountain. The old Atlanteans and their priests have been teaching humanity 
since they acquired intelligence from God himself, and they travelled around the world 
to create a global alliance. 

This is not a conclusion but the beginning of a new step in the intelligence of men, a 
rebirth and the end of an era. We pray God and the Gods to help humanity once more to 
find an internal point which can encircle the spirit in a world of peace and love. 

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